gaming of a given system, whereby a given individual, group or entity engenders a burden on communal resources, public goods, or services, by extracting benefit, whilst paying little, or even nothing, towards it. This can apply to IP and research, to recycling or leaving a tip.

This leads to the discussion of disincentives, to discourage free riding, or, the 'logic of collective action' - laws enacted to ensure that enough of the parties involved behave in a way that benefits the collective, over the individual.